While the United States and Turkey are not part of the agreement, as countries have not declared their intention to leave the 1992 UNFCCC as “Annex 1” countries, they will continue to be required under the UNFCCC to prepare national communications and an annual greenhouse gas inventory. [91] Scientists first described this chemical reaction in the 1970s and first observed in 1985 an erosion of the stratospheric ozone layer (a “hole in the ozone layer”) over Antarctica. Among other things, colder temperatures lead to conditions that increase exhaustion rates. In 1987, an international agreement on the protection of the ozone layer was signed describing the production and use of “ozone-depleting substances” such as CFCs. This agreement, the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, entered into force in 1989 and established different exit plans for the production and use of different chemicals. Developing countries have been given longer periods of time to comply with emission phase-out provisions than industrialized countries. The Paris Agreement [3] is an agreement within the UNFCCC (UNFCCC) on the reduction, adaptation and financing of greenhouse gas emissions, signed in 2016. The language of the agreement was negotiated by representatives of 196 States Parties at the 21st Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC at Le Bourget, near Paris, France, and adopted by consensus on 12 December 2015. [4] [5] Until February 2020, the 196 members of the UNFCCC signed the agreement and 189 became parties to the agreement.

[1] Of the seven countries that are not parties to the law, the only major emitters are Iran and Turkey. The implementation of the agreement by all Member States is assessed every five years and the first evaluation will take place in 2023. The result will be used as a contribution to member States` new national contributions. [30] The inventory will not be one of the contributions/performance of each country, but of a collective analysis of what has been achieved and what remains to be done. These rules of transparency and accountability are similar to those adopted in other international agreements. While the system does not carry financial penalties, the requirements are aimed at easily tracking the progress of individual nations and promoting a sense of global group pressure, which discourages any hesitation between countries that might consider it. In 1992, President George H.W. Bush, along with 107 other heads of state at the Earth Summit in Rio, Brazil, struck a series of environmental agreements, including the UNFCCC framework, which is still in force today. The international treaty aims to prevent dangerous human intervention in the planet`s climate systems in the long term. The Pact does not set limit values for greenhouse gas emissions for individual countries and does not contain enforcement mechanisms, but rather establishes a framework for international negotiations on future agreements or protocols to set binding emission targets. Participating countries meet annually at a Conference of the Parties (COP) to assess their progress and continue discussions on how best to tackle climate change. .

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